salam everyone! Good friday to you all. Don't forget to read Surah Al-Kahf :) Seeking knowledge is amongst my favourite hobbies. I thought i'd write something i'm passionate about: Islamic history. This article will be focusing on Islamic Art during the Abbasid dynasty.
After succeeding the Umayyads, the greatest realm at the time in which Marwan II was the last Ummayad caliph (744-50), the Abbasid caliphate rose in 750 and transferred the Islamic political and cultural life from Syria to Baghdad; the capital of Iraq and the imperial metropolis of the Abbasid dominion. It was known as the City of Peace (Madinah al-salam). This change also transformed the Umayyads' Arab empire into a multinational Muslim empire. There were many advances that took place in science, literature, philosophy and art.
The Abbasid dynasty ruled for three centuries (750-1258). Samarra was another city established by the Abbasids that is north of Baghdad. It is an abbreviation of ‘He who sees it rejoices’ and was the capital for nearly five decades (836-883). Today, Sammara is surrounded with many art and architecture from the Abbasids.
Masajids during the Abbasid rule
Masjids during the Abbasids was not only a place of worship but it was also the social and political centre of the Muslim community. Masjids normally have a rectangular structure. They were built with mud and baked brick and often were painted, carved with geometric designs. The hall was wider on the side of the qibla wall (direction facing Kaaba) and in its middle there is a mihrab (niche). On the right of the mihrab there was a minbar (pulpit) in which the Imam (prayer leader) gives the khutba (Friday sermon). The ulama (scholars) usually lead the prayer, this opposed to the Umayyad period in which the caliph himself often gave the khutbah.
The manara (minaret) is the place in which prayer is called and there is limited evidence that suggests that the Abbasids used it for this purpose rather it was suggested that its monumental size was used to alert people that this was a masjid.
The Fall of the Abbasid dynasty
In the middle of the 9th century, Abbasid rule began to decay and by 10th century, it was limited to Iraq. This led to other parts of the Muslim world (North Africa especially Egypt, Spain) that fosters development of styles of Islamic Art. Baghdad was captured by the Buyids (932–1062) and Seljuqs (1040–1194) in 945 and 1055, Abbasid caliphs retained little more than moral and spiritual influence as the heads of Orthodox Sunni Islam. The Abbasid realm witnessed a brief revival under caliphs al-Nasir (ruled 1180–1225) and al-Mustansir (ruled 1226–42), when Baghdad once again became the greatest centre for the arts in the Islamic world. The Mustansiriya Madrassah (1228–33) is the first college for the four canonical schools of Sunni law, was built. The remaining Abbasids escaped to Egypt and would only have nominal influence.
This is where I will post my articles. I will do an article each month in sha Allah