During his rule between 644 CE and C56 it consisted of a blend of serenity, contention and patience. He lost several of his children at infancy but was able to cope and perform his role as Caliph to the best of his abilities.
Tracing back to the early years of the life of Uthman bin Affan, he was born into a wealthy family from the Quraish tribe and was well-respected for his modesty, shyness, literate and generosity. He converted to Islam at the age of 34 with certainty and confidence because he analysed Islam as a virtue and a way of portraying his own morality that reflect the religions’ principles. However, this led to torture by his family and had to seek refuge in Abyssinia with Ruqayyah (may Allah have mercy upon her) which was their first hijrah. He later returned to Mecca to help our Beloved Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and 146 hadiths were narrated by him.
Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
"Shall not I be shy of a man from whom angels are shy." "Give him glad tidings of Paradise for an affliction to hit him."
[Sahih Al Bukhari p. 705, No. 3693, Muslim p. 978, No. 2403]
His love for his wife was indescribable and during her illness, rather than attending the first battle of Badr, he looked after his wife until her death. He was saddened and Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) then married him to his other daughter Umm Kulthum (may Allah have mercy upon her). This emphasises the level of trust Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had in Uthman ibn Affan (may Allah have mercy upon him) and the upstanding personality traits, high qualities and values in which his eminent companion possessed.
Aishah said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was lying down in my room with his thigh uncovered when Abu Bakr asked for permission to enter. He gave him permission to enter, remaining as he was. Then `Umar asked for permission to come in and he gave him permission, remaining as he was. Then `Uthman asked for permission to enter and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sat up and arranged his garment and then came in and spoke. When he left, I said: O Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr came in and you did not exert yourself nor concern yourself with him. Then `Umar came in and you did not exert yourself nor concern yourself with him. Then `Umar came in and you sat up and arranged your garment. He said: Should I not be modest before a man before whom the angels are modest? [Muslim, 977, No. 2401]
Amongst his work in the Ummah was freeing ‘slaves’ by buying them every Friday. He supported the battles by providing camels and money. He even supported the two Caliph’s prior to his status with advice and allegiance to Abu Bakr Assidiq and Umar ibn Al Khattab (may Allah have mercy upon them). Even after the appointed position, he remained consistent in providing a just rule.
Al-Tirmidhi narrated the following:
I was present in the house when `Uthman approached them and said: Bring me your two friends who stirred you against me. He said: They were brought to him as if they were two camels or two donkeys. He said: `Uthman approached them and said: I ask you by the name of Allah and Islam, do you know that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came to Medina while there was no fresh water therein but Rumah Well? Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Who would buy the Rumah Well and give water to Muslims for a better well in Paradise? Thereupon, I bought it from my money, but today you prevent me from drinking therefrom until I drink from sea water? They said: By Allah, this is true. He said: I ask you by the name of Allah and Islam, do you know that the Masjid did not encompass the people who were offering Salah therein, thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Who would buy the land of so and so to expand the Masjid for a better land in Paradise? Thereupon, I bought it from my money, but today you prevent me to offer two Rak`ahs therein? They said: By Allah, this is true.
He said: I ask you by the name of Allah and Islam, do you know that I equipped the army of hardship from my money? They said: By Allah, this is true. Then he said: I ask you by the name of Allah and Islam, do you know that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was on Thabir (a mountain between Makkah and `Arafah) with Abu Bakr, `Umar, and me, so, the mountain moved until its rocks fell down. He said: He (the Messenger of Allah) kicked it with his leg and said: "O Thabir, calm down, for there is a Prophet, a truthful person, and a martyr on you." They said: By Allah, this is true. He said: Allahu Akbar, by the Lord of Kaabah, they bear witness that I am a martyr (three times).
[Al-Tirmidhi in his hadith Thumamah ibn Hazn al Qushayry, p 579, no 3703]
Subhanallah, what an incredible personality in which we can all learn from, how he was patient due to the loss of his wife and child, the treatment of his family when he made a spiritual choice of converting to Islam, how he looked after his wife rather than attending battles and how he offered support to his companions during their rule. This article wraps up the Sahaba article series titled ‘The Parables of the eminent companions of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). I hope you benefitted from the lessons over the 6 months, keep me in your duas, and I’ll keep you in mine.